Monday, July 31, 2017

Abbreviated Timeline of Early European History

800 AD           800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emporer; Carolingian Dyn.
Eighth C        746  Alemannic dukes rebel: defeated and executed by Carloman
700                 Language  and culture Latin in south, west; German north, east
Seventh C     Alemanii give up pagan burial grounds
600                 Alemanii graves show increasing Christian influence
                        Establishing of bishop centers and cloisters, Irish monk influence
Sixth C           536  Southern Alemanii come under Frankish rule
500     Alemanii - Franks mix and share:  social status, jewelry, weapons, religion        
Fifth C                        496 Battle of Tolbiac:  Frankish king Clovis defeats Alemanii
                        Alemanii expand north and west, increasing contact with Franks
400                 loose bands of Alemmanic tribes, signs of conflict and violent injury
Fourth C        380  Christianity becomes official religion in Roman areas
300                 313  Edict of Milan, Constantine grants religious freedom
Third C           Germanic tribes migrate and take over as Roman rule loosens
200                 Roman rule extends across Europe to ‘Limes”
Second C      Roman Empire:  organized army, administration, money, language,
100                 cult of emperor, secure trade roots:  oil, wine, fish, etc.
First  C           Extensive trading networks
0                      Romans consolidate control from south to north
                        Romans advance up Rhone & Rhine;
-100 BC         Celtic oppida abandoned over next decades as Romans advance
                        Celtic retraction begins
-200 BC         Luxury goods imported from south: wine, slaves, metal
-300 BC         Celtic tribes expand north and west
                        Oppida or fortified towns, wide trading network, writing
                        Celtic artists increasingly adapt and enhance Greek & Etruscan art
-400 BC         Celtic tribes spread across Europe: Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, UK
-450 BC         Princely settlements diminish.  Heuneburg dies out.
                        Celtic Iron Age transition from Hallstat to La Tene Culture
-500 BC         Celts first mentioned by the Greeks – Heunenberg?
                        Elaborate burial mounds of nobility
-600 BC         Greeks found Massala, trade up Rhone.  Heuneburg.
                        Start of large tumuli burial mounds for nobles with luxury goods
                        Chariot burials of elite modeled after Greek and Etruscans
-700 BC         Time of trade and social differentiation:
                        Fortified centers on trade routes with Greeks, Etruscans,
-800 BC         Hallstat Period of Celtic Iron Age begins as trade brings in materials
                        & technology:  Bronze still used; gold, pottery, weapons, jewelry. 
-1,000 BC      Iron Age spreads to Greece & Italy from Hittites of Anatolia
-2,300            BC     Bronze Age spreads to Europe from east:  trade in copper and tin
                        sharing of religious traditions, stratified society, conflict
-3,500            BC     Copper Age spreads north and west from Middle East & Cyprus
-5,000 BC      Agriculture, farming and livestock, trade, jewelry, wheels spread
                        through the Swiss plateau and north; including farm animals

-10,000 BC   Agriculture emerges in the Middle East, spreads north & west

No comments: