800 AD 800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emporer; Carolingian Dyn.
Eighth C 746 Alemannic dukes rebel: defeated and executed by Carloman
700 Language and culture Latin in south, west; German north, east
Seventh C Alemanii give up pagan burial grounds
600 Alemanii graves show increasing Christian influence
Establishing of bishop centers and cloisters, Irish monk influence
Sixth C 536 Southern Alemanii come under Frankish rule
500 Alemanii - Franks mix and share: social status, jewelry, weapons, religion
Fifth C 496 Battle of Tolbiac: Frankish king Clovis defeats Alemanii
Alemanii expand north and west, increasing contact with Franks
400 loose bands of Alemmanic tribes, signs of conflict and violent injury
Fourth C 380 Christianity becomes official religion in Roman areas
300 313 Edict of Milan, Constantine grants religious freedom
Third C Germanic tribes migrate and take over as Roman rule loosens
200 Roman rule extends across Europe to ‘Limes”
Second C Roman Empire: organized army, administration, money, language,
100 cult of emperor, secure trade roots: oil, wine, fish, etc.
First C Extensive trading networks
0 Romans consolidate control from south to north
Romans advance up Rhone & Rhine;
-100 BC Celtic oppida abandoned over next decades as Romans advance
Celtic retraction begins
-200 BC Luxury goods imported from south: wine, slaves, metal
-300 BC Celtic tribes expand north and west
Oppida or fortified towns, wide trading network, writing
Celtic artists increasingly adapt and enhance Greek & Etruscan art
-400 BC Celtic tribes spread across Europe: Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, UK
-450 BC Princely settlements diminish. Heuneburg dies out.
Celtic Iron Age transition from Hallstat to La Tene Culture
-500 BC Celts first mentioned by the Greeks – Heunenberg?
Elaborate burial mounds of nobility
-600 BC Greeks found Massala, trade up Rhone. Heuneburg.
Start of large tumuli burial mounds for nobles with luxury goods
Chariot burials of elite modeled after Greek and Etruscans
-700 BC Time of trade and social differentiation:
Fortified centers on trade routes with Greeks, Etruscans,
-800 BC Hallstat Period of Celtic Iron Age begins as trade brings in materials
& technology: Bronze still used; gold, pottery, weapons, jewelry.
-1,000 BC Iron Age spreads to Greece & Italy from Hittites of Anatolia
-2,300 BC Bronze Age spreads to Europe from east: trade in copper and tin
sharing of religious traditions, stratified society, conflict
-3,500 BC Copper Age spreads north and west from Middle East & Cyprus
-5,000 BC Agriculture, farming and livestock, trade, jewelry, wheels spread
through the Swiss plateau and north; including farm animals
-10,000 BC Agriculture emerges in the Middle East, spreads north & west